Origins of the Open Access Movement

The Open Access idea is linked to the development of the internet and the thereby improved communication opportunities for research results. In doing so, initially repositories for research were developed, for example arXiv, a repository for preprints of various disciplines such as physics. Several declarations from the early 2000s can be considered to represent the formal beginnings of scientific-political Open Access: the Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Declaration on Open Access publishing (2003) and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Scientific Knowledge (2003). The guidelines set out in these declarations form the core principles of the modern Open Access movement.